Michael Frank, Fellow and System Architect at Arteris IP is quoted in this Semiconductor Engineering blog:
Taming Non-Predictable Systems
January 28th, 2021 - By Brian Bailey
The non-predictable nature of most systems is not inherently bad, so long as it is understood and bounded — but that’s becoming a bigger challenge.
“Real-time is a ‘stretchable’ term,” says Michael Frank, fellow and system architect at Arteris IP. “In general, it implies that a certain action is completed within a bounded time, with 100 % probability, as opposed to engineering schedules. For most real-time systems, the definition is not that strict. Some systems are fine if the average is within a certain window that meets the requirement, such as for video decoding. Other cases may look to see if the deadline will only be missed with a certain low random probability. Those systems may replace a missing result by a prediction/interpolation, such as dropped audio samples.”